Jauzarrea Program - Canadá
Program that this summer JAUZARREA will develop in the Historical Place Louisbourg’s National Fortress, together with PARKS CANADA, Fortress Louisbourg Association and UNAMA'KI College-MARSHALL INSTITUTE-CBU (Cape Breton University).
The Fortress of Louisbourg National Historic Site on Cape Island Breton, Nova Scotia (Canada), “unceded” territory of the Mi’kmaq Nation, constitutes the largest rebuilding – from archaeological excavations– in North America. Today, we can contemplate 32 buildings and a quarter of the fortifications, rebuilt based on the remains found and thanks to the historical records in the archives.
This fortified town facing the Atlantic Ocean, and surrounded by marshes and forests, is set at a midpoint in its brief history, in the year 1744. Its walls with moats, the governor's palace, the houses of distinguished bourgeois, taverns, warehouses, barracks, bakery, warehouses, shops and all kinds of homes for the rest of its inhabitants, give the enclave an extraordinary appeal, given the size of the establishment. All this makes Louisbourg today a destination of undoubted interest for lovers of historical heritage. In all its corners a population bustles with period costumes, which also gives it the added value of interaction with the visitor.
Louisbourg was a strategic enclave for the balance of forces of the two powers that had claimed the right to possess those lands – for above the natives of the place, the Mi'kmaq–, and that therefore that immensity of trees and water was disputed: the French crown and the English crown. We know from eighteenth-century documents that the Basques had a significant presence in Louisbourg, and yet this was not reflected in the overall staging carried out by the PARKS CANADA team on the ground.
In 2019 we started this program, integrated into a broad project called KNEKK TEPAW that began in 2018, with the celebration of an international ATLANTIAR de JAUZARREA congress in Sydney with the Cape Breton University.
JAUZARREA sends two students again after the pandemic break, Garazi Maeso (Andra Mari Taldea de Galdakao) and Mikele Albisu (Argia de Donostia), to work as volunteers in July and August integrated in the PARKS CANADA team, in their roles as Basque inhabitants of the colony, speaking Euskara and teaching traditional Basque music and dance from the XVIII. His attire, which are suits made by Claude Iruretagoyena and Jon Olazcuaga from Maritzuli Konpainia (Biarritz), represents models faithful to that time strictly. The musical instruments, txistu and tamboril, are replicas of eighteenth-century models, made by "Txino" Tomás Díaz Peñalba de Ezpelur Gaiteroak, Irunea.
For 9 weeks, they will be ambassadors of our culture in the enclave of Louisbourg which, set in the year 1744, receives 150,000 visitors per season. On this occasion their work will be complemented by other activities such as the introduction of Basque cider in the taverns of the colony and the celebration of a Basque Chocolate Week.
The two students will also participate in an exchange program of culture of the Mi'kmaq First Nation in summer camps, in the Bandas de Eskasoni, Membertou and Wagmatcook.
Xabi Otero, director of JAUZARREA, will participate for several weeks in workshops to undertake improvements to the program, developing new initiatives, and to prepare the contents of a book on the experience as a whole in order to disseminate it together with PARKS CANADA in the Canadian National Parks and Historic Sites system as a whole.
EUSKAL SAGARDOA has collaborated closely with JAUZARREA to bring to Louisbourg the cider, made with Basque apples, from the ISASTEGI cider house in Tolosa. In this way, our cider will be present in the menus of the 5 restaurants, cafeterias and taverns of the enclave, opening new expectations to the future.
Basque cider, made in the farmhouses of the Basque Country, was the first to travel to America, hand in hand with our sailors. The intention of this collaboration is to value the Euskal Sagardoa product and its history, closely linked to North America and Basque merchants and fishermen.
From July 11 to the 17, Master Chocolatier Rafa Gorrotxategi will lead the Basque Chocolate Week.
The Basques of Louisbourg routinely consumed chocolate, in addition to trade with him. Bernard Etcheverry was one of the many Basque merchants who regularly provided chocolate to their guests and compatriots. Bernard Dargaignarats, Bertrand Larreguy, Jean-Baptiste Lascorret, these men consumed chocolate and imported it to Louisbourg to sell it. 26 of the 147 merchants in Louisbourg were Basque. In addition to the large group dedicated to cod fishing, with their families and their possessions.
Also officials of the French crown, members of the garrison, fur traders and adventurers, up to 20% of the enclave's inhabitants were Euskaldunak, since its foundation on a Basque settlement in 1713, until 1758 when it was taken over by the British. The Basques knew chocolate from the beginning of contact with the indigenous people in Central and South America. Since the beginning of the sixteenth century there have been reports of cocoa brought by sailors and soldiers returning from their trips to America. By the middle of the century, chocolate consumption in Euskal Herria was widespread, and the decision to add cane sugar in what would be the first recipe for hot chocolate as we know it is attributed to the Basque Fray Juan de Zumarraga, the first bishop of Mexico, in 1520.
In 1727, the General Assemblies of Gipuzkoa proposed to the Spanish monarch to cleanse the Atlantic of British and Dutch pirates and smugglers, chartering their own armed Basque ships in exchange for obtaining a cocoa monopoly.
The king signed the Royal Certificate in September 1728, from 1731 the cocoa was already supplied by the Royal Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas from Venezuela, and entered our country through Donostia, Pasaia and Baiona. From Baiona it arrived to Louisbourg.